Category Archives: July to December 1915

49. William Scoones DEWELL 1153

Wliiam Dewell was another English immigrant farm worker. He enlisted on 8 October 1914. He had been born in London (Hackney). He was single, described himself as ‘labourer’ and gave his age as 20 years and 10 months. He had completed some military training in England –Territorial Forces – before coming to Australia.

It is possible that his parents were both dead because he gave his next-of-kin as an aunt, Miss Jane Scoones of London. She also completed the (National) Roll of Honour form – she gave his occupation as ‘clerk’ – and all his military decorations went to her, as did his personal kit – Brass Bowl, Hair & Clothes Brushes, New Testament, Military Books, Shaving Brush, Photos, Letters. She also applied for a pension after his death but this was rejected. Unfortunately, there is no family correspondence in his service file so it is not possible to uncover his personal circumstances or the impact of his death on those back in England. Like many of the young, immigrant English farm workers, he was very definitely on his own in his newly adopted country.

He was first reported ‘missing’ on 21 August 1915 and then, after a court of enquiry held at Serapeum (Egypt) on 28 April 1916, his status was changed to ‘killed in action’. The cable to his aunt officially notifying her of his death was dated 10 May 1915.

The action in which Private Dewell lost his life was part of the last major campaign on Gallipoli. Both Australian and British units were involved. The war diary for the 14 Battalion describes how 3 lines of men from both 13 B and 14 B attempted to move on Hill 60 immediately after a heavy artillery bombardment, mid afternoon of 21 August. All the lines suffered heavy casualties from Turkish machine gun fire and the third line was not able to make any movement at all. The troops had to dig trenches and fortify their positions that night, but they were well short of their objective. The men from 14 B who were out in the advanced position under heavy fire from the Turks, were relieved by 16 B very early in the morning of 23 August. Presumably, Private Dewell was killed on 21 August but his body was not recovered when his unit withdrew. The casualties just for 14 B were given as 103.  There was a Red Cross report completed for Private Dewell. One witness – Pte A Stuckey 129, A Co., 14th Btn. – described Dewell’s fate:

Witness said Dewell was killed on Aug 21, on the left toward Suvla. Pte W. Hartigan, 1472, A Co., 14th Btn., was wounded at the same time. Hartigan told witness soon after the charge that as he was lying wounded he saw Dewell drop, shot dead near him. Dewell was running down the hill in the charge at the time. He was a young fellow of 20, with fair hair.

Hartigan’s service record indicates that he was wounded the same day – ‘abdominal wound’. He also was first listed as missing on 21 August, but at some point he must have been able to get back to the Australian lines.

Prior (2009, pp 206-207) is highly critical of these last actions of the Suvla campaign:

A common feature of these operations was their poverty of purpose. All of them were designed only to improve the local tactical situation on various parts of the line. None were attempts to seize the Anafarta Ridge and so could have made no substantial difference to the overall position of the IX Corps. What they did was add to the casualty bill.

When his aunt completed the (National) Roll of Honour form, she indicated that her nephew, William Scoones Dewell, came to Australia  as a 20yo. This suggests that he had only been in Australia for a short period – only months – before he enlisted. Obviously, his time in Australia – before enlisting, going overseas and dying on Gallipoli – was very short. In such circumstances, his chances of ever becoming a ‘local’ in some specific location were very limited. Certainly his service file gives no indication that he had an association with any location, and his aunt just listed Melbourne as the place with which he was ‘chiefly connected’. Similarly, she merely gave the ‘Dardanelles’ as the place where he was killed.

But there is one specific piece of evidence that ties William Scoones Dewell to the Shire of Alberton. In the correspondence files of the Secretary of the Shire of Alberton – G W Black – is a letter from William S Dewell, dated 18 November. He had tried to enlist at Yarram but was told by Black to go to Melbourne.

I applied to you for enlistment but as you were not enlisting at that particular time you advised me to apply to the A.A.G. Victoria Barracks.

Presumably, after the large group of volunteers enlisted in late September 1914, there was something of a hiatus, and in this interval extra volunteers were told to report to Melbourne.

Prior to enlisting Dewell had been working at Wonyip. As indicated, he could not have been working in the district as a farm labourer for long, but he definitely was working in the Shire before he enlisted.

100 years on, it is hard to understand the motivation behind the letter. There was certainly no requirement to advise the Shire Secretary that he had enlisted. Presumably, this young man wanted someone, from the district where he had been working and living, to know, officially, that he had enlisted. Perhaps, away from his own family, he was simply after some acknowledgement: his patriotic action counted and someone needed to know.

However, as things turned out, the letter did not do much good. His name is not recorded on the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll, nor the Shire of Alberton War Memorial. There was no Shire Medallion. Without the evidence of the letter, there would be no association whatsoever with the Shire.

As indicated, Private Dewell’s body was never recovered. His name is recorded on the Lone Pine Memorial. He passed with hardly a trace, first in Australia and then on Gallipoli.

References

Correspondence, Shire Secretary.
Shire of Alberton Archives, Archive One, File Number 703B, Recruiting & Enlisted Men (Box 398)

Prior, R  2009, Gallipoli: The End of the Myth, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney

National Archives file for DEWELL William Scoones

Roll of Honour: William Scoones Dewell

First World War Embarkation Rolls: William Scoones Dewell [surname is, incorrectly, DOWELL on this record]

WW1 Red Cross files: William Scoones Dewell

War Diary of 14 Battalion

48. Alexander John McLEOD 1709 and Leslie John McLEOD 1077

Tragically, the 2 McLeod brothers died within 11 days of each other. Alexander John McLeod 1709 was killed in action at Lone Pine on 18 August 1915 and his younger brother, Leslie John McLeod died on 29 August 1915 of disease. He was on the transport ship HMAT Kyarra when he died of ‘cerebro spinal meningitis’ just before it reached Fremantle on the voyage to Egypt.

The 2 brothers were the sons of Senior Constable Alexander Mcleod who had been appointed to Yarram in September 1914. There was a brief note in the Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative on 25 September 1914 relating to his appointment.

The new “senior” made his first appearance in the court, and was greeted with words of welcome from the bench and clerk of courts. In returning thanks he expressed a determination to do his duty fearlessly, and to put down the use of obscene language in the town.

The issue of obscene language in the town will be taken up in a later post.

Obviously, Senior Constable McLeod was very well known in the local community. However, the extent to which his 2 sons were commemorated in the Shire was limited. Alexander John McLeod is not included on either the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll or the Shire of Alberton War Memorial. His younger brother, Leslie John McLeod, is included on the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll but he is not noted as ‘killed’, and nor does his name appear on the Shire of Alberton War Memorial. Presumably there are 2 reasons for this situation. The first is that the family did not arrive in Yarram until September 1914 and it was as soon as January 1915 – just a few months later – when the older brother, Alexander, enlisted in Melbourne. It was perhaps too short a period of time for him to be regarded as ‘local’. Perhaps he never even lived in Yarram. He gave his occupation as clerk and, even though he was only 18yo at the time of enlistment, perhaps he was boarding with relatives in Melbourne and working there. However he certainly gave Yarram – his father’s address – as his address when he enlisted. Moreover the younger brother – Leslie – was definitely living in Yarram because he was given a railway warrant – number 117, dated 24 June 1915 – to travel to Melbourne to enlist. The second reason for the limited recognition of the 2 brothers was the fact that the family moved out of Yarram at the end of the War when the father was posted to Daylesford. There was no one there in the period after the War to represent the interests of the family in acknowledging their sons’ service..

Whilst the brothers might not have been well known in the Shire of Alberton, the picture below indicates that they were certainly remembered in Yarra Glen. Yarra Glen was, in fact, given by the parents on the (National) Roll of Honour form as the place with which both sons were ‘chiefly connected’. Presumably it was the place where the father had had a previous posting. The picture is of 3 stained glass windows in St Paul’s Anglican Church Yarra Glen. The windows commemorate the 2 sons – Alexander John and Leslie John – killed in WW1 and also a third son – Othel (Keith) McLeod – who was killed in WW2.

Alexander John McLeod

Alexander McLeod enlisted 5 January 1915. He was 18yo, single and, as indicated, he gave his occupation as clerk. He had spent 2 years in the senior cadets at South Melbourne. On the enlistment form his religious denomination was entered as ‘Pres’. The permission from the father for his under-age son to enlist simply stated: I hereby give my permission to my son joining the Expeditionary Force. 1/1/15

His unit – 7 Battalion reinforcements – left Melbourne 0n 13 April 1915 and he joined the battalion on Gallipoli on 26 May . At the same time, his appointment as lance corporal was cancelled and he reverted to private. There was no explanation for this reversion. His file does not indicate that it was at his request, which was a relatively common practice.

He was killed in action on 16 August and buried the same day at Beach Cemetery, Shrapnel Gully by Rev. W. E. Dexter. Walter Ernest Dexter was a Church of England chaplain in the AIF. He was from South Melbourne and was 41yo. He had served previously in South Africa.

At the time, 7 Battalion was involved in the ongoing fighting at Lone Pine . The action described in the war diary for 16 August is, by the standards of the time, rather low key.

During yesterday we sniped a good deal inflicting losses on the enemy. The enemy was evidently annoyed at out activity & replied with frequent bursts of Machine Gun fire which damaged our sand bags a good deal & about 4pm the enemy’s 75mm fired 6 rounds which however did no damage. During the night a few bombs were thrown by each side. We also secured some rifle grenades which we fired with good effect into the enemy’s trenches. Improved and deepened our trenches.

The only casualties recorded that day were: 1 killed, 2 slightly wounded. The one killed must have been Private Alexander John Mcleod.

It appears that the parents received advice about their son’s death on 11 September 1915. Even after 100 years, the following letter – dated 14 September 1915, Yarram – from the Rev George Cox, the local Church of England minister, reads as a desperate cry from the mother for it all to be wrong. It cannot be her son:

I am writing on behalf of Mrs McLeod of Yarram to ask if you think any mistake has been made in notifying her of the death of her son for the following reasons.

Notification gives death of Private A. J. McLeod, but her son left here as a corporal.

The mother always signed as “A.” McLeod, the notice came addressed Mrs “E” McLeod. [The son had in fact given his mother’s name on his enlistment papers as ‘Elizabeth McLeod’. Her full name was Elizabeth Margaret Loftus McLeod]

The lad enquired after was in 4th Reinforcements 7th Batt. 2nd. Aust. Inf. Brig.

He was a confirmed member of the Church of England, as also is his mother, yet the notification was sent to the Presbyterian minister. [as indicated, ‘Pres’ was entered as his religious denomination on the enlistment forms]

Intimation came to hand last Saturday, 11th. inst.

Thanking you in anticipation

The formal reply came on 24 September. It discounted each of the apparent anomalies, and concluded:

It is regretted that there does not appear to be any doubt about the accuracy of the report conveyed to Mrs. Mcleod.

Personal items – Testament, purse, coins 2, letters  – were returned to the family at the end of 1915. In fact, additional items were sent at the end of 1916, but the mother had what must have been the distressing task of returning them to Base Records. She wrote on the form that the items did not belong to her son, and that, instead, they needed to be sent to the family of the late James McLeod 1787 of the same Battalion.

Leslie John McLeod

The service record for the younger brother, Private Leslie John McLeod 1077, is very brief. He enlisted in Melbourne on 1 july 1915 in the 9 LHR. His group of reinforcements left Melbourne on HMAT Kyarra on 20 August, and he died at sea just before the transport reached Freemantle –  or possibly it was when the vessel was moored in Freemantle Harbour – on 29 August. He was given a military funeral and buried in the Freemantle Cemetery on 30 August. His entire service was just short of 2 months.

It appears that the family were notified of the death on 31 August. Two weeks later, the family was to learn that the other son had been killed earlier, on 16 August.

When he enlisted Leslie gave his age as 18 years and 3 months. He was single and he gave his occupation, like his brother, as clerk. His religion was recorded as Church of England. Both brothers had attended unnamed state schools.

The following article from the local paper on 1 September 1915 gives more detail on his age:

Yesterday morning Senior-Constable McLeod received a wire, per the Rev. Geo. Cox, announcing the death of his son Leslie John on the troopship off Freemantle, at the age of just 16 years. The cause was meningitis. This lad had joined in Melbourne some months ago, in his 15th year, but was persuaded by his parents to leave camp on account of his youth. He had passed the Bankers’ Institute examination, and it was hoped he would accept a position in a bank. He came to Yarram, but his heart was fixed on a soldier’s life, and having gained the consent of his parents, again enlisted. Unfortunately he never reached the fighting line. His remains were to have been buried with military honors at Freemantle yesterday.

When his mother completed the (National) Roll of Honour form, she gave his age at death as 17yo.

The news of the death of the second son was reported on 15 September:

Our readers will sympathise with Senior-Cons. and Mrs. McLeod, of Yarram, who received word last week of the death of their second son, at the front. Only recently Private Leslie John McLeod died on the troopship, when off Freemantle, of meningitis. Closely following on the sad news came the announcement of the death of Private Alexander John McLeod, who was killed in the big battle at the Dardanelles on 18th August. He was 19 years 3 months old. The Defence department wired expressing regret and sympathy of King and Queen and the Commonwealth.

As indicated, there was a third brother killed in war. Othel (Keith) McLeod (VX 122632)  was born in 1909. He died on 9 September 1943 when serving in New Guinea. A US bomber loaded with bombs crashed on take-off and he was badly injured (burns). He died from injuries 2 days later. In his peacetime work he had been a bank-teller. He was single.

References

Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative

Alexander John McLeod
National Archives file for McLEOD Alexander John

Roll of Honour: Alexander John McLeod

First World War Embarkation Rolls: Alexander John McLeod

War Diary of 7 Battalion

Leslie John McLeod
National Archives file for McLEOD Leslie John

Roll of Honour: Leslie John McLeod

First World War Embarkation Rolls: Leslie John McLeod

 

47. John Henry ADAMS 31

John Henry Adams enlisted in Queensland – Enoggera – on 3 November 1914. However, like many others, he was from Victoria. He was born at Ballarat but the family must have moved to Gippsland soon after. On the (National) Roll of Honour form, his parents noted that he had attended the state school at Longwarry South and, in fact, they gave Longwarry as the place with which he was ‘chiefly connected’.

By the time John Henry Adams enlisted, his family had shifted closer to Yarram. On his enlistment papers, he gave his address – his father’s address – as Yarram.  On the electoral roll, both parents appear. The father, also John Henry Adams, is listed as a farmer of Jack River; and the mother, Bridget Adams, appears as domestic duties of Jack River.

The family was well known in the district. In the Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative of 6 December 1916, there was a detailed article on the farewell provided to Mr. J H Adams and his wife who were leaving the district to go and live at Warragul. Their property was referred to as ‘Calrossie’ and the whole event was organised by the locals from Calrossie, not far from Yarram and one of the early farming areas in the Shire of Alberton. Judging by the nature of the event and the presentations made – … to Mr. Adams of a gold Albert chain and locket, and to Mrs. Adams silver teapot and silver cruet – the family was well regarded in the local community. Overall, John Henry Adams came from a well-known, local family. As a young man he had helped on his father’s farm – the parents refer specifically to this work on the (National) Roll of Honour form – but then, probably aged in his late teens, he went to Queensland. Whereas other lads in the same situation did have their names included on both the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll and the Shire War Memorial, his name was omitted. Most likely, this was because the family moved out of the district in late 1916.

On his enlistment papers, John Henry Adams gave his occupation as ‘stockman’. In fact, he was serving in the (Australian) Army Service Corps, Remounts Section in Queensland. He had signed on for 5 years and, at the time he enlisted, had served 4 years. He was discharged at his own request so that he could join the infantry in the AIF.

On enlistment he was 22yo, single and he gave his religion as Roman Catholic.

He left Australia 22 December 1914. In action at Gallipoli on 23 May 1915 he was wounded – bomb wound back – and then hospitalised. He was discharged from hospital on 29 July and rejoined his battalion (15 B) on 2 August. Less than one week later, he was listed as ‘missing’ on 8 August. He held the rank of corporal.

In a letter home, dated 7 June Egypt, which was published in the local paper on 23 July 1915, Corporal J. H. Adams described the action in late May 1915 that saw him wounded:

… we got into the action quite soon enough. I lasted only two days, having got a bomb in the back, and so am in the hospital at present, but hope to be out of it inside three weeks. We have had a pretty warm time of it, but I think the hottest of it is over, and personally speaking I’m not sorry. It makes one think a little when when he sees all his pals going down, but the the experience gained makes up for it in one way.

The same article also featured an extract from another of his letters dated 11 June, 4 days later:

One can thank his lucky stars he is not like a lot of the poor fellows, crippled for life. There is a lot leaving here for Australia crippled. One never knows his luck. I might be wiped out next time. It is simply hell. The trenches where I got hit are only eight to 10 yards off the Turks trenches, and they don’t forget to use the bomb either night and day. It is one continual roar, night and day, of rifle and shell fire, shrapnel falling like peas. Then a charge and a hand to hand fight with the cold steel. But that is where our boys shine; the Turks don’t like the bayonets. They call us the “White Ghurkas,” and I think the boys have earned the name.

He even finished the letter with a call for volunteers:

We want every man who is able to carry a rifle. If he hasn’t got nerve enough to face the Turks he can take up ambulance work.

Incredibly, the formal death report for Corporal Adams was not completed until 21 June 1917, nearly 2 years after his death. This followed a court of enquiry in France on 18 April 1917. On 15 January 1917, the parents had written, respectfully, to Base Records in Melbourne:

Dear sirs just to inquire if there has been anything further heard of our son Corporal J H Adams 15th Battalion who was reported missing between 7th and 8th August 1915…

In normal circumstances they would have received the standard letter stating that nothing further had been received and so the status of ‘missing’ still applied. However, in this particular instance, presumably because of the extreme length of time that had elapsed, there was a far more considered response:

19th January 1917.
With reference to your communication… on the subject of the report regarding your son, Corporal John Henry Adams, 15th Battalion, I am directed to inform you that there is no definite official report of  this soldier’s death.
Looking however:-
(1) To the length of time which has elapsed since this soldier was officially reported “Missing”, viz:- 8th August 1915;
(2)  To the fact that Corporal Adams’ name has not appeared in any list of prisoners of war received to date;
the Military Board is regretfully constrained to conclude that this soldier is dead, and that death occurred on or about the 8th August 1915.

As indicated, the official report finally came in June 1917. There was no personal kit returned to the family. Almost certainly, the parents would have concluded that their son was dead once the letters stopped, but a probable complication in this case was that because he had enlisted in Queensland, the parents might have had only limited, if any, contact with men from his unit.

The parents seemed convinced that their son had been killed at Lone Pine. They specifically identified Lone Pine on the (National) Roll of Honour form as the place of death, and a lawyer acting on their behalf referred to Corporal Adams being killed at Lone Pine. In fact, at the time of his death, Corporal Adam’s battalion – 15 B – was fighting well north of Lone Pine. As part of the 4 Brigade it was involved in the action north at Sari Bair, supposedly pushing to Hill 971. The effort was a failure, with very high casualties. Prior (2009, p. 178) sums it up:

The story of the Australian effort on 8 August is soon told. In the dark they lost their way once again and made off in the direction of Hill 60, yet further away from Hill 971. More misfortune was in store. Essad had placed two regiments in this area, one from reserve and the other from Helles. (23) The concentrated machine-gun fire from these units decimated Monash’s leading battalions (14 and 15), which were also having trouble cooperating with each other. The 14th complained that when the Turks opened fire, support from the 15th simply ‘withered away’.(24) The 15th claimed that their call for support from the 14th went unanswered.(25) In the circumstances this ill-will hardly mattered. In a matter of minutes 600 casualties had been inflicted on the units. Monash had no choice but to disregard Cox’s instruction to advance on Hill 971 and return to the start line. There would be no further action by 4 Brigade that day.

The war diary for 15 Battalion for 8 August gives the following casualties: 100 killed, 188 wounded and 102 missing. Corporal Adams was one of the ‘missing’, either dead or wounded at that point.

Corporal Adam’s name is featured on the Lone Pine Memorial.

References

Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative

Prior, R  2009, Gallipoli: The End of the Myth, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney

National Archives file for ADAMS John Henry

Roll of Honour: John Henry Adams

First World War Embarkation Rolls: John Henry Adams

WW1 Red Cross files: John Henry Adams

War Diary of 15 Battalion

 

46. George Thomas TYLER 2194

George Thomas Tyler enlisted in Yarram on 16 April 1915. He was born in Melbourne. On his enlistment papers, he gave his occupation as ‘cream cart driver’ and, according to a rate book entry, he also had land, about 15 acres, in the Yarram area. He might have been employed by one of the local butter factories, but the land holding suggests that it is also possible that he was operating as a small, independent contractor for local dairy farms.

His parents were George and Hannah Jane Tyler. Both parents are included on the 1915 Electoral Roll (Division of Gippsland, Subdivision of Yarram, Yarram). The father is featured as ‘labourer’ and the mother’s status is given as ‘domestic duties’ . Obviously both were living in the local area in 1915. Also, when the younger brother – Henry Bernard (Bert) Tyler 663, 14 B – had enlisted earlier, in September 1914, the father’s address was given as Yarram. However, when the older brother – George Thomas Tyler – enlisted in April 1915, he gave the father’s address as Boundary Road, North Melbourne. Subsequently, there were additional changes of address, in the Melbourne metro area; but there were also references to the family continuing to live in the Yarram area.

When George Thomas Tyler enlisted he was 29 yo and single. The family was Roman Catholic. It appears that there were 2 other siblings: a younger brother and a sister.

The (National) Roll of Honour form was not completed so there are no details about schooling. At the same time, neither brother is on any honor roll for the local schools, so it appears that the family moved to the Yarram district after their schooling.

Both sons had their medicals, and enlisted, at Yarram, and were issued with railway warrants for the trip to Melbourne. On the enlistment form there was a question (#9) which asked whether the person enlisting had … ever been convicted by the Civil Power? Almost universally there was never any response, but in the case of the Tyler brothers, both recorded that they had been fined for assault/fined for fighting. The medical report for George Tyler, completed by Dr. Rutter, noted facial injuries, including injury to bridge of nose, suggesting that the assault might have been recent.

The striking feature of Private George Tyler’s service in the AIF is just how short it was. As indicated he enlisted on 16 April 1915. He embarked for service overseas on 17 June 1915. He joined his battalion at Gallipoli on 5 August and he was killed on either 8 or 9 August 1915. From enlistment to death was less than 4 months.

The war diary for the 7 Battalion makes it clear what happened to the many men killed over the 2 days of 8-9August. At 1:30 on the afternoon of 8 August, the battalion was moved, as reinforcements, to Lone Pine. Immediately they were shelled. The C.O. of the battalion – H E (Pompey) Elliott – made a point of recording that the new recruits – Tyler would have been one of them – were greatly alarmed by the shelling of 75mm high explosive rounds because they thought they were hand-grenades. He noted that they were reassured when he told them they were shells not hand-grenades. In any case, it was all somewhat academic because the account goes on to detail the bombing raids and assaults that the Turkish forces then launched against the Australians. Elliott recorded his pleas for more bombs – send more bombs running very short.  The battalion was relieved by 5 Battalion in the early afternoon of 9 August. The intensity of the fighting in that 24 hour period, spread over 2 days, is evident in the casualty figures: 28 killed, 221 wounded and 108 missing.

Private Tyler was officially one of those ‘missing’. In fact, he was not officially designated as killed in action on 8-9 /8/15 until a court of enquiry was conducted in France nearly one year later, on 5 June 1916. The Red Cross report makes it clear that his mates had no doubt that he had been killed. For example, Pte. J Clark, 2125, 7 Battalion A.I.F. recovering in hospital in Heliopolis, Cairo stated in December 1915:

Informant who was in the same Co as Tyler heard from several of his mates who were near Tyler at the time, that he had been hit in the head by a bullet and killed instantly at Lone Pine on Aug. 9.

It appears that the family only received final confirmation at the end of 1916, well over one year from the time he was reported missing. In fact, when the family wrote requesting further information in mid July 1916 – this was one month after the court of enquiry in France had determined Private Tyler had been killed in action –  the official line from Base Records in Melbourne was still that he was ‘missing’:

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter (undated), [it was received 13 July] and, in regard to No. 2194 Private G. T. Tyler,  7th Battalion, to inform you no other report than that he is missing has been received up to the present.

I might state when a soldier is reported missing and cannot be satisfactorily accounted for a Court of Enquiry is held at a later date to collect all evidence of the case and record an opinion as to whether it is reasonable to suppose he is dead. It is not known here whether such Court has yet been held in connection with Private Tyler, but it is understood that steps are being taken to finalize these unsatisfactory cases.

In situations such as this it was normal for the family to learn from others in the same unit what had really happened to their son, long before there was official word from the military authorities. Once the letters stopped coming it was natural to fear the worst. However in this particular cease there was one sad twist. The following brief entry appeared in the Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative on 12 November 1915.

Fears that George Tyler, reported missing, had been killed in active service, were allayed yesterday by a message to his parents at Yarram. Bert [Henry Bernard Tyler, brother] wrote to say his brother George was wounded in the arm. This indicates that he is in the hospital.

There is no explanation for why the younger brother – Henry Bernard (Bert) Tyler – believed his brother was in hospital and not, at the very least, missing. Perhaps he was clinging to something he had heard from someone. Perhaps he was trying to protect his parents. Then again, it is hard to believe that someone who was there on Gallipoli at the time, having heard about Lone Pine, would have been ignorant of the most likely outcome. At the time his brother went missing at Lone Pine, Henry Bernard Tyler’s battalion (14 B)  was involved in the main attack further north for Hill 971.

At that point- early November 1915 – the parents were said to be living again in Yarram. The address appears to have been Commercial Street, Yarram. It further appears that they left this address in November the following year (1916) and moved back to Melbourne. The movement of the family is difficult to understand and track. Perhaps one parent – the mother – stayed in Yarram, while the father moved back to Melbourne, possibly for work.

Another sad twist in the story involved the return of personal items. Such kit was returned to the family but the mother posted it back noting that it was not her son’s. No other kit was ever returned.

On 23 February 1916 the following in memoriam appeared in the local paper. It is interesting that the death has been, not for the Empire, but for Australia:

Tyler – Killed at Lonesome Pine 8th or 9th Aug., Geo. T. Tyler, beloved son of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Tyler, Yarram, and brother of Mrs. Rodgers, and Bert Tyler now at the front.

Australia called to her children,
Called them in honour’s name.
Our George gave his life as an answer;
That’s how he played the game.

Private Tyler’s name appears on the Lone Pine Memorial. His name is also on the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll and the Shire of Alberton War Memorial. Unfortunately,  on the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll the names of the 2 brothers have been confused, and it is H B Tyler, not G T Tyler, who is shown as having been killed [in action].

The brother – Henry Bernard (Bert) Tyler – survived the War and returned home in September 1919. He rose to the rank of lieutenant and was awarded the Military Medal.

References

Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative

National Archives file for TYLER George Thomas

Roll of Honour: George Thomas Tyler

First World War Embarkation Rolls: George Thomas Tyler

WW1 Red Cross files: George Thomas Tyler

War Diary of 7 Battalion

 

45. The Nek: Patrick SWEENEY 451, James MOYSEY 138, James PICKETT 232

Trooper Patrick Joseph Sweeney 451, 8 LHR C Squadron
Trooper James Edgar Moysey 138, 8 LHR A Squadron
Sergeant James Burnett Pickett 232, 8 LHR B Squadron

All 3 men were killed in action with the 8 Light Horse Regiment at the Nek on 7 August. Initially, Sweeney and Pickett were recorded as ‘missing’ but this was quickly changed to ‘killed in action’ and the 3 families were individually informed of their son’s death by cable on 25 August 1915. The bodies were never recovered – the bodies were still on the battlefield at the end off the War – and the names of the 3 men are recorded on the Lone Pine Memorial. There was no Red Cross report instigated for any of them: it was abundantly clear to those who survived what had happened.

Another common characteristic for the 3 men was the lack of parental correspondence in their individual service files. This always makes it more difficult to fill in the personal details of an individual’s life.

Patrick Joseph Sweeney

In a real sense Patrick Sweeney was the most ‘local’ of the three. He was born in Yarram, attended the local state school and was working in Yarram when he enlisted. His family – the father was also named Patrick – lived in Yarram.  On the (National) Roll of Honour form, the father listed Yarram as the place with which his son was ‘chiefly connected’. The family was Roman Catholic.

Patrick enlisted in Yarram on 16 September 1914. He was 28yo and single. He gave his occupation as labourer. There was another brother – William Henry Sweeney – who was Patrick’s twin. He enlisted as a 28yo on 25 September, also at Yarram, and also in the 8 LHR.  The reason that he too did not die at the Nek was because at that time he was in hospital in Alexandria. He had been wounded earlier on 8 July 1915: compound fractured skull and left tibia. Burns face and arms. He was repatriated to the UK then back to Australia where he was eventually discharged on 25 December 1916. There was also another, older brother – Cornelius James Sweeney, 35yo – who enlisted round the same time, also at Yarram, but in 15 Battalion. Cornelius made it through to 1917 when he was killed at Bullecourt.

When the father completed the (National) Roll of Honour form he gave the place of death as just ‘Gallipoli’ but when the family placed in memoriams in the local paper the location was given as ‘Lone Pine’.

Patrick Sweeney’s name appears on the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll, the honor roll for Yarram State School and the Shire of Alberton War Memorial.

The in memoriam placed in the paper on 7 July 1916 is striking for its very Catholic references. Strangely, the date of death is incorrect.

Sweeney – In loving memory of our loved son and brother, P. J. Sweeney, of 8th Light Horse, who fell in action at Gallipoli on the 8th August, 1915.

A precious one from us is gone,
His fond, true heart is stilled;
A place is vacant in our home
Which never can be filled.

Immaculate heart of Mary,
Your prayers for him extol;
Oh, sacred heart of Jesus,
Have mercy on his soul.

– Inserted by his loving parents and sisters.

The following year, on 8 August 1917,  the in memoriam was more political. By this point, 2 sons were dead and another had been discharged on medical grounds. The family had definitely done its ‘duty’, at a time when there was a strong push to compel others to do their duty and serve:

Sweeney – In loving memory of our darling son and brother, Trooper P. J. Sweeney, 8th Light Horse, killed in action at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, on 8th Aug., 1915.

We tried our best to keep him;
We pleaded for him to remain.
But he said, “My country is calling,
Let me go, or I will die in shame.”

He needed no recruiting speech
When he heard his country’s call.
He’s sleeping now at Lone Pine,
Beloved and mourned by all.

– Inserted by his loving parents, sisters and brothers.

The family continued to place such in memoriams – for the 2 Sweeney brothers killed – through to at least the 1920s.

James Edgar Moysey

The details for James Moysey are limited. His name is not included on any local memorial.

He was born in Yinnar, South Gippsland. He enlisted at Bairnsdale on 21 September 1914. He was 25yo, single and he gave his occupation as labourer. His religion was Church of England.

His parents were Isaac and Harriett Moysey of Orbost. After the War the mother was living in Mount Gambier, SA.

When the mother completed the (National) Roll of Honour form she gave Orbost, Gippsland as the place with which her son had been ‘chiefly connected’. She also gave his occupation as labourer. As was the case with Patrick Sweeney’s family, she too gave Lone Pine as the place of death.

On the face of it, there is nothing to tie Trooper Moysey to the Shire of Alberton. However, Moysey is an uncommon name and there was only one J E Moysey who enlisted, and he was killed in action. Whilst there was no link evident in the personal service file, there clearly was a connection to the district because on 8 October 1915, just 2 months after his death, the Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative noted the following:

We learn from the “Argus” that Private J. E. Moysey, aforetime school teacher in this district, and a prominent footballer, was killed in action at the Dardanelles on August 7th. He was born in Yinnar in 1889. His parents live in Orbost.

James Burnett Pickett

James Burnett Pickett completed his medical at Yarrawonga and enlisted in Melbourne on 15 September 1914. He was 19yo, single and he gave his occupation as jackeroo. His religion was accorded as Church of England. On his enlistment papers he indicated that he had served 1 year in the senior cadets and reached the rank of 2nd. lieutenant.

He was born at Rupanyap near Horsham. His family must have moved to the Yarram area when he was child because he features on the honour rolls of 2 local state schools – Yarram and Darriman – and in both cases he is recorded as having been killed in action.

The parents were James and Annie Pickett. However it appears that the father had died by the time James enlisted. It was the mother who wrote her permission on the enlistment form: I consent to my son James Burnett Pickett joining the Australian Expeditionary Force. The mother also completed the (National) Roll of Honour form and on it she gave Canterbury as the place with which her son was ‘chiefly connected’. Canterbury was also given on his enlistment papers as his current address, so it appears that immediately prior to enlisting James had been living with his mother in Melbourne. The fact that he was in the senior cadets suggests that he and been living in the metropolitan area there a few years.

At the same time, it appears that James must have spent a good deal of his childhood and teenage years in the Yarram district. He was certainly still remembered as a local lad. In the 9 August 1916 edition of the Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative there is a large article on the commemoration, on Friday 7 August 1916,  of the second anniversary of the War. As part of the ceremony, the Shire Medallion was handed out. By this point more than 200 of these medallions had been issued, but some of the very first men to enlist had not received them so this was an opportunity for relatives or friends to collect them on behalf of the men. One of the medallions to be handed out was to go to J. B. Pickett (killed). There is no way of knowing if the medallion was collected, or by whom. However, it is clear that James Pickett was still regarded as local. Even though he was to receive a medallion, his name is not included on either the Shire Honor Roll or the Shire War Memorial.

Whereas the parents of both Patrick Sweeney and James Moysey gave Lone Pine as the place of death, James Pickett’s mother at least recorded it as Walker’s Ridge, much closer to the Nek.  She must have picked this detail up from a former mate of her son, as there is no evidence in the files of any of the 3 men that the Nek was ever given as the specific location where they had been killed.

References

Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative

Patrick Joseph Sweeney 451, 8 LHR

National Archives file for SWEENEY Patrick Joseph

First World War Embarkation Rolls: Patrick Joseph Sweeney

Roll of Honour: Patrick Joseph Sweeney

James Edgar Moysey 138, 8 LHR

National Archives file for MOYSEY James Edgar

First World War Embarkation Rolls: James Edgar Moysey

Roll of Honour: James Edgar Moysey

Sgt. James Burnett Pickett 232, 8 LHR

National Archives file for PICKETT James Burnett

First World War Embarkation Rolls: James Burnett Pickett

Roll of Honour: James Burnett Pickett

44. Frederick Arthur BIRD 559

Frederick Arthur Bird 599, 4 Light Horse Regiment was wounded – shrapnel wound to the head – on 6 August 1915. He was taken to a casualty clearing station but died of wounds the same day. He was also buried the same day at Beach Cemetery, with Rev McPhee officiating.

At the time, the 4 LHR was based at Ryrie’s Post, not far from Lone Pine. Acccording to the history of the 4 LHR (Holloway, 2011 p. 76) at 4.30 a.m. on 6 August, Frederick Bird’s squadron (A) was involved in action at Lean’s Post which was further south near the end of the Anzac perimeter. The Turkish forces attacked to counter the ongoing demonstrations that the Australians were  carrying out at the time to hold them in their positions. These demonstrations were diversions prior to the major offensive in the north. Presumably, Trooper Bird was wounded very early in the attack and then taken to the casualty clearing station where he died. He was then buried on the same day. Not surprisingly, there was no Red Cross report completed for him.

The significance of this detail is that the parents generally referred to their son being killed at Lone Pine. Lone Pine was given as the place of death when they completed the information for the (National) Roll of Honour and they referred explicitly to Lone Pine in correspondence with the Army. The family also gave Lone Pine as the place of death in their in memoriam notices.  However, the action at Lone Pine did not commence until late afternoon of the 6 August and in all probability Trooper Bird had been buried by that point. It seems that Lone Pine took on some sort of generic identity for deaths in the general vicinity. Army correspondence only ever referred to very general locations, e.g. Gallipoli, Ottoman Empire or Anzac, Gallipoli Peninsula.

Fred Bird had his medical and enlisted in Yarram on 19 September 1914.  He was single and 18yo. In fact, his mother gave his age at the time of his death as only 18 years and 6 months, suggesting that he was not even 18yo when he enlisted.  He gave his occupation as farmer and he would have been working with his father – James Bird – who was a local grazier with land at Alberton East (100 acres) and Woranga (51 acres). His mother – Ada Jane Bird –  also had land in her own name, 15 acres at Yarram. On the Electoral Roll she was described as ‘home duties’. The family was Church of England. While Fred had been born in Leongatha, he had grown up in the Yarram district and had attended the Yarram State School. Yarram was given as the place with which he was ‘chiefly connected’ on the Roll of Honour form. His name features on the Shire of Alberton War Memorial and also the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll.

In one sense, Trooper Bird’s death was a relatively straightforward matter: the soldier was wounded, evacuated to a casualty clearing centre, unfortunately died of wounds and was then immediately buried, with the burial details recorded. However, as in so many other cases, the official communication of the death was problematic. It appears that on 18 August, nearly two weeks after his death, his father James A Bird received a cable advising that his son … Private F. A. Bird wounded 6th August not reported seriously no other particulars available will immediately advise if anything further received. The cable advising that Trooper Bird was dead appears to be dated 21 August. The official report of death was completed on 28 September 1915 and in November the same year the family were given some additional details of the death:  …he died of shrapnel wound, head, at Australian Casualty Clearing Station, Anzac, Gallipoli Peninsula, on the 6th August, 1915. Advice about the burial arrangements was not received until 12 June 1917. After the War the parents received a photograph of the grave.

In May 1916 personal belongings were returned in 2 lots. The first consisted of – watch (damaged), knife, handkerchief. – and the second – Disc, Purse, Religious books, Note-book, Cards, Letters.

The death of Trooper Bird was reported in the Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative on 1 September 1915:

Mr. and Mrs. Jas. Bird received word on Saturday [28 August] that their son Frederick Arthur, aged 18, had been killed in action at the Dardenelles. He was reported wounded, but it seems he was killed on 12th August.

It is not clear where the date of 12 August came from. Also, if  the parents did not receive word of the death until Saturday 28 August then it took a full week for the cable to reach them.

At the end of 1915 when Private George Silver returned to the district wounded – he had survived Lone Pine – he gave the following comment on Fred Bird. It was not much but it would have meant a lot to the parents and family:

I met Fred Bird on the Peninsula, who was always in good spirits. I was not in action with him, as he was in the Light Horse, but he was reckoned a good soldier. Not till I got home did I know he was amongst the slain.

In early August 1916 (4/8/16) there were 2 in memoriams in the paper for Frederick Bird. One was from his parents and family which concluded that he was … still very sadly missed. The other was from his aunt – Miss Annie E Bird (dressmaker of Yarram) – who included a short verse:

Men of Anzac, not in vain
All the battle sweat and pain
Of the brave young lives that fell
Gashed and torn by shot and shell

Death in battle was still heroic. It was hardly surprising, given that the families were so far removed from the reality of the War. They were certainly unaware that so many of the men were dying in diversionary actions.

Just a couple of days before Trooper Frederick Bird was killed, his brother, James George Bird, enlisted in the 9 Light Horse Regiment. He enlisted on 3 August 1915 and he was 19 and 6 months, one year older. He was fortunate to survive the War and returned in August 1919.

References

Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative

Holloway, D 2011, Endure and Fight: A detailed history of the 4th Light Horse regiment, AIF, 1914-19, The 4th Light Horse Regiment Memorial Association.

War Diary 4 Light Horse Regiment

National Archives file for BIRD Frederick Arthur

First World War Embarkation Rolls: Frederick Arthur Bird

Roll of Honour: Frederick Arthur Bird

43. August 1915

Eight men from the Shire of Alberton died on active service at Gallipoli in August 1915, most in the period 6-8 August: Frederick Bird 559, 4 LHR, died of wounds 6 August; James Moysey 138, 8 LHR, killed in action 7 August; James Pickett 232, 8 LHR, killed in action 7 August; Patrick Sweeney 451, 8 LHR, killed in action 7 August; John Adams 31, 15 B, missing from 7 August then killed in action same date; George Tyler 2194, 7 B, missing then killed in action 8 or 9 August; Alexander John McLeod 1709, 7 B, killed in action 16 August and William Dewell 1153, 14 B, missing then killed in action 21 August. Only two of the men – Frederick Bird and Alexander McLeod – have known graves, the rest feature on the Lone Pine Memorial. Another soldier from the Shire of Alberton – David Geoffrey Willis – died of meningitis in camp in Melbourne on 26 August 1915.

The men will be covered in separate posts. This particular post looks at the 2 distinctive actions of the time – Lone Pine and the Nek – in an attempt to give some sort of context to the deaths. At the time, one hundred years ago, people in Australia needed to be reassured that the increasing sacrifice associated with the campaign in the Dardanelles was warranted. Newspaper reports continued to conceal and misrepresent the real military situation. The primary focus for the stories was the heroism and the fighting qualities of the Anzacs. The Gallipoli campaign was reported as a military adventure.

Lone(some) Pine

Despite the high level of Australian casualties – over 2,000 Australians in 4 days of hand-to-hand fighting in covered trenches – the action at Lone Pine (Lonesome Pine) was intended as yet another feint. It was designed to hold Turkish troops in place immediately prior to the major assault in the north on Chunuk Bair and Hill 971. The overall strategy in the north was to secure the high ground of Sari Bair and achieve the breakthrough that had eluded the allied troops from the very first day of the Dardanelles campaign. The action in the north was to be supported by a series of feints in the south and there was also to be a major, concurrent, British action based on Suvla Bay. The actions in the north – Suvla and Chunuk Bair – failed. In fact, the action at Suvla Bay is generally regarded as one the low points in British military history.

In Australia, the misreporting of the Gallipoli campaign continued. Heroism remained the dominant theme.The news about Lone Pine reached Australia by early September. On 4 September 1915, The Age (p. 11) published an extensive account, again by Ashmead-Bartlett – special representative of the British press at Gallipoli – which led with the heroic headlines: Gallipoli Battle.   Fight For Main Crest.   Position Taken And Lost.   Australia’s Glorious Part   Amazing Dash Shown    “Attack With Fury Of Fanatics.”

In the article Ashmead-Bartlett expressed some frustration with the failure of the main attack on Sari Bair. According to him, victory had been so close. He was setting down what was to become the conventional wisdom of how the attack had so nearly succeeded. The failure of the British action at Suvla was even written into the record, albeit discretely:

“There was bitter disappointment in relinquishing the crest [of Sari Bair] when it was almost in our grasp after so many months, but there was no alternative. The Anzac Army Corps fought like lions, and accomplished a feat of arms almost without parallel in climbing those heights, although handicapped by the failure of another army corps to make good its position on the Anfarta hills further north for the purpose of checking the enemy’s shell fire.

The article also presented the background to the specific action at Lone Pine and gave a vivid account of the savagery of the fighting:

“In order to enable the forces detailed for the main movement, which had for its ultimate object the occupation of Sari Bair, from Chanak Bair to Kojachemen [Hill 971], it was necessary to attract the enemy’s attention towards the south and force him to keep his troops in front of our lines while our main forces debouched from Anzac. This was the reason for the Australian advance on 6th August, and the desperate attack on the Lonesome Pine plateau…

“The Turks have fortified the place carefully, and it was a veritable fortress. The trenches were roofed with huge pine logs, railway sleepers and immense teak planks, and were covered with earth, making the trenches impervious to shells except from heavy howitzers.

EXTRAORDINARY STRUGGLE UNDERGROUND.

…The Australians rushed forward to the assault with the fury of fanatics, little heeding the tremendous shrapnel and the enfilading rifle fire. Great difficulty was experienced in forcing a way into the trenches. Mighty physical effort was required to remove the obstructions. …The Turks were caught in a trap. Some surrendered, but the majority chose to die fighting. There was a desperate hand to hand fight in every trench and dugout. Four lines of trenches were captured in succession, additional infantry pouring in as the advancing lines thinned. …

“The Turks massed their forces, and counter-attacked desperately for three days and nights. They frequently retook sections of the trenches, only to be again driven out. The extraordinary struggle was almost entirely underground. Both sides showed an utter disregard of life. The wounded and dead chocked the trenches almost to the top, and the survivors carried on the fight over heaps of corpses. Despite the most determined courage shown by the reinforced Turks, the Australians held their ground finally, and the Turks wearied of the struggle. The trenches are now merely battered shambles. The removal of the dead and wounded occupied days. The bodies of 1000 Turks and colonials were removed from the trenches, and hundreds more corpses lay outside.

Clearly, the fighting was brutal and both sides fought with incredible bravery. But the high losses for the Australians had to seen against the military objective of the action. Lone Pine was a feint. As Ashmead-Bartlett told his readers:

“Although the capture of the Lonesome Pine plateau was the most desperate hand to hand fight yet on the peninsula, it was merely a diversion and preliminary to the main movement northwards, which commenced the same evening under darkness.

However, as indicated, the main movement was itself a failure. Moreover, 100 years on, Prior (2009, p.171) only rates the military success of Lone Pine as ‘ambiguous’. By any standard, Lone Pine was an incredible loss of men for such qualified military outcomes. As for Gallipoli in general, Lone Pine demonstrated that the relationship between heroism and sacrifice on one hand and military success on the other was very tenuous.

The Nek

The futility of the action at the the Nek very early in the morning on 7 August was even more striking. Perhaps it was more the orchestration or performance of the famous charge that was its most distinctive feature. This is the action that was immortalised in the Peter Weir film, Gallipoli. It was essentially another diversionary action timed to support similar operations at Quinn’s Post and Pope’s Post. Critically, it depended on the success of other actions, particularly the New Zealanders’ push to Chunuk Bair. But the New Zealanders were well behind and, in fact, Prior (p. 176) argues that Birdwood ordered the doomed attack at the Nek to proceed because he wanted it as a diversion to support the New Zealanders. The military plan was in effect turned on its head at the last minute. In the event, 4 waves – 150 men in each – of the 8 and 10 Light Horse Regiments rushed to their deaths. Of the 600 men involved more than 300 were killed or wounded and the bodies lay on the battlefield for weeks after. The 8 Light Horse Regiment, the first to attack, suffered most, with 234 from its 300 strength either killed or wounded.

The war diary for the 8 Light Horse Regiment is a very concise and sobering read:

At 4.40 we led the attack on the TURKISH trenches on the NEK. The C.O. led the first line which consisted of about 9 officers and 150 other ranks and the second line of equal strength by 2nd in command. Moving into a deadly machine gun fire, the attack failed to get home.

The Commanding Officer was 33yo Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Henry White and he was killed in the first few seconds. Bean (1941, p. 614) claimed he made 10 paces.

At least at Lone Pine some military objective had been achieved – whether it was worth the casualty level is another issue altogether – but the Nek achieved no military outcome. Against this background, the reporting of the episode in Australia posed a significant challenge. Not surprisingly, the tactic was to talk up the heroism and sacrifice.

The story was reported some 6 weeks after it occurred, appearing in The Age (p. 6) on 30 September 1915, although the date for the copy was earlier – Gaba Tepe, 16th August.  The headlines proclaimed: A Victorian Charge.   Light Horse Storm Trenches   Terrific Hail of Bullets Faced.   Imperishable Glory Won.  It was sourced:  [From the Special representative of “The Age”]

The article featured a description of the Nek itself and gave a picture of the task facing the men:

The nek [sic] is 150 yards wide, and the space between our and the enemy’s trenches is 80 yards. In some places it is less. On the right hand is a sheer drop over the cliffs into the valleys, now captured by us. Out towards the left flank, on the left of the position, is the head of Monash Gully. The plateau is crossed and re-crossed by enemy works. The nek is on the left, and on the right is the famous Pope’s Post. Between Pope’s and our next trenches is a ravine, and then comes Quinn’s Post. Opposite these points the Turkish trenches are sometimes only a few yards distant – they are scarcely ever more than 80 yards apart.

The work before the Light Horse was to charge over the enemy parapets, up a slight incline, against row after row of gradually rising trenches.

The heroic style of writing is intended to put the reader there at the Nek, to make them part of the action. The obstacles are insurmountable. This is a glorious but doomed attack.  Then came the charge:

The Victorians [8 LHR] on the sound of a whistle scrambled over the parapets into the face of a fearful fire. I cannot describe the volume and intensity of the waves of lead that swept across the tops of the parapets. The Turks had never before disclosed the positions of many of their machine guns, but now ten or more were sending a rain of bullets thudding against the parapets or skimming over the top.

Against this “hell fire” the Light Horse leaped out, led by their officers. Lieutenant-Colonel White, a more gallant leader than whom never faced fire, insisted on leading his squadron, and he had gone but a few yards when he was riddled with bullets. Still our men went on, only to be shot down, crippled or killed outright. The second and third lines had come out at intervals of a few minutes…

… The parapets were covered with the wounded and dying. Stretcher bearers rescued men where they could, dragging them down into the trenches, while over the parapets went other men, doomed like their brave comrades. Many only reached the parapet.

Bean (1941, p. 622) summed up the challenge facing the Light Horse at the Nek: On no other occasion during the war did Australians have to face fire approaching in volume that which concentrated on The Nek.

In case the reader questioned why the pointless killing was allowed to continue for so long, the article already had an answer. It was the claim that some men had made it to the Turkish trenches and therefore they had to be supported. In his Official History, Bean (p. 615) also featured the report of the pre-arranged small red and yellow flag that people claimed to have seen in the enemy trenches. Bean stated that reports had it there for 10 minutes before it was torn down. He surmised that it was almost certain that a few men from the first wave managed to get into the first Turkish trench on the extreme right. Flags or not, it was clear to those directly involved at the Nek that morning, that the military objective was not attainable. Several attempts were made to call the action off. Presumably, after the carnage, people sought to rationalise what had happened.

The Age described the flag incident and employed it to exonerate the military commanders:

A handful of men from the second line reached the first line of the Turkish trenches… They flung themselves into those trenches somehow but there is scarcely a soul alive to tell the tale. According to a prearranged signal, the Turks having been driven back along the communication trenches, our men raised a red and yellow flag about a foot square. Ten minutes had scarcely gone by when this, as wonderful a feat as any in the campaign, was accomplished. Each minute had rendered the position more desperate; each minute ten, twenty or thirty men had gone down, yet the general had no option, when those heroic men of the Eighth reached and captured the first trench, but to send support. And so the third line went forth to death and glory.

The article does not acknowledge it but, In the confusion, a large number of the fourth wave also charged. The second 2 waves of the attack were made up of men from 10 Light Horse regiment.

More than anything else, the article focussed on the heroism of the men involved. And, of course, there was strong provenance for doomed but heroic attacks like this. The image of the resolute British soldier, following his officers’ orders to certain death was a staple in British and Imperial culture at the time, and the The Age exploited it forcefully:

There is a parallel between this charge and the famous charge at Balaclava. The Light Horse knew that to leave their trenches was to charge into valley after valley of death. They never questioned those orders, but went at the word of command, and their deed stands on that same glorious pedestal. “Was there a man dismayed?” I venture to think that after one engagement, with the knowledge of all that trench warfare meant, the troops never presented a braver front. “Theirs not to reason why; theirs but to do – and die.” Words never conveyed a fuller meaning than did these for the men who left the trenches at 4.30 a.m. on 7th August.

We might want to dismiss this style of newspaper reporting as mawkish claptrap and an unconscionable cover-up for gross incompetence on the part of military commanders, both British and Australian, but the historical reality is that such sentiments would have comforted many families at the time. This was a picture of the Empire at its greatest. Moreover, stripping out all the jingoism, there is no doubting the bravery shown by the men who did literally run to their deaths.

This particular report on the charge at the Nek is arguably one of the lowest pieces of military propaganda ever published in WW1. The last paragraph reads more like a sermon than a piece of reporting. It exploits the heroism shown by the men to insist that no one should ask any hard questions about what had happened; and its claims about the overall success of the charge at the Nek and the wider great flanking movement are grossly inaccurate:

The Glory of the Dead
In this way in a brief few minutes did a regiment perish, but it left behind an imperishable name. Yet the regiment did no more than its duty, but the men did it against fearful odds, in the face of certain death, because their leaders led them. No one may ask if the price was not too great. The main object had been achieved. The Turks were held not only here, but right along the line – tied to their trenches, crowded together, waiting to be bayoneted where they stood, as they had been at Lone Pine. Above all, the way had been kept clear for the great flanking movement, which the New Zealand and Australian infantry, British, Indian and Maories [sic] carried out, ending with the linking of hands with the new army flung ashore at Suvla bay. Victorians, and indeed all Australians, will “honor the charge they made – honor the Light Brigade.”

Even before Lone Pine and the Nek there was an established pattern of newspaper reporting that minimised military failure and extolled the fighting quality and bravery of the AIF. Lone Pine and the Nek took the practice to new levels. However, the extent of the military failure, and the shocking level of casualties meant that the seemingly unchecked pursuit of sacrifice and heroism would eventually be questioned. For those in Australia reading the mainstream press the doubts began to appear not very long after the disasters of early August. Ashmead-Bartlett was one the most important Imperial war correspondent at the time – certainly he was the most popular one in Australia, where he was famous for his depiction of the heroic AIF – yet in the Argus (p. 9) on 18 October 1915 he questioned the worth of the entire Gallipoli campaign. Under headlines including, Blunders At Gallipoli.   Ashmead Bartlett’s Warning  and  Some Plain Speaking, he was quoted as questioning whether the appalling slaughter at Gallipoli had been worth it. It was a nuanced report but the gist was that while Australian soldiers had made a name for themselves for their fighting qualities, the overall campaign had been a litany of military blunders. The enormous sacrifice had achieved no significant military outcomes.

References

The Age

Argus

Prior, R  2009, Gallipoli: The End of the Myth, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney

Bean, CEW 1941, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, Volume II – The Story of ANZAC from 4 May, 1915, to the evacuation of the Gallipoli Peninsula, Chapter XXI – The Feints of August 7th., 11th Edition 1941

War Diary of 8 Light Horse Regiment, August 1915

 

42. Alfred Kitson McDOUGALL 126

Alfred Kitson McDougall enlisted in Melbourne on 17 August 1914. It was a very early enlistment, given that the declaration of war had only occurred two weeks earlier. It was one month before the first large group of enlistments from Yarram on 16 September 1914.

McDougall was 31yo when he enlisted and he gave his occupation as painter. He was single and his religion was recorded as Church of England.

His father – John McDougall – was dead and he gave his mother – Mrs Janet Margaret Hysing – as his next-of-kin.  Her address was 60 Wilson Street, North Carlton and this was the same address he gave for himself.  When his mother completed the (National) Roll of Honour form she indicated that he had attended the state school in Carlton (Rathdowne Street) and on his enlistment papers he gave his place of birth as North Carlton.

He must have moved to Yarram for work and he must have been there for a fair length of time. It appears that he had moved back to Melbourne before the War as there is no entry for him on the Electoral Roll of the time and he does not appear in the Rate Book. However, he must have lived and worked in the local area for some time because he was clearly regarded as ‘local’. He had spent time in the Yarram Rifle Club. His name appears on both the Shire of Alberton Honor Roll – with his death indicated – and the Shire of Alberton War Memorial. As well, when his mother completed the information for the (National) Roll of Honor she gave Yarram as the place with which he was ‘chiefly connected’. Lastly, the local paper – Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative – gave the following brief account of his death in the edition of 20 August 1915:

Lance-Corporal Alfred H [sic] McDougall, formerly of Yarram, and only son of Mrs. Janet Hysing, 60 Wilson St., Princes Hill, was killed in action at the Dardanelles on 13th July.

He joined 7 Battalion and his unit left Melbourne on 19 October 1914. His papers show that he was promoted to Lance Corporal on 31 October 1914. In Egypt, he spent one month in hospital at Alexandria – from 7 April to 11 May – with an abscess of his left hand. Discharged from hospital, he embarked for Gallipoli on 20 May and rejoined his battalion on 31 May. L/Cpl McDougall was killed in action on 13 July 1915.

The mother received reasonably prompt advice of her son’s death. The cable back to Australia was dated 31 July 1915 and the official Report of Death of a Soldier was dated 16 September 1915, Alexandria. Both  The Australasian T.&G. Mutual Life Assurance Society Limited and United Ancient Order of Druids made formal requests for the Certificate of Death as early as the second week of August 1915 but had to wait until late September before they received it. There is no record of any personal effects being returned to the mother. The mother received a pension of 30/- per fortnight, which was increased to 40/- from 10 May 1917.

L/Cpl McDougall was buried in Shrapnel Gully Cemetery.  Following the work of the Graves Registration Unit after the War, in May 1921, the mother was advised that her son was buried in Shrapnel Valley Cemetery, Gallipoli plot 2, row C grave 1. As per normal practice she was given a photograph of the grave.

While there is no Red Cross report for L/Cpl McDougall,  the war dairy of 7 Battalion – written by its commander, H E (Pompey) Elliott – gives some indication of what happened. Essentially, his death was the result of another ‘demonstration’ – a limited raid/feint on the Turkish positions, this time in the general vicinity of German Officers’ Trench.

The entry indicates that at 5 AM on 13 July a party of 11 volunteers led by 2Lt Greig attacked and overran an outlying Turkish position. The Turks withdrew and then the raiding party itself came under a sustained bomb and machine gun attack from the main Turkish line. All the men in the raiding party were wounded, 2 were killed and 2Lt Greig went ‘missing’. In fact, 2Lt Norman James Greig – former Master at Scotch College, Melbourne – was recorded, subsequently, as ‘killed in action’. Whilst this action was underway another party of Australians attacked another part of the Turkish line before they were also forced to withdraw with heavy casualties. This second action was confused in its execution and more ad hoc than planned. The end result was that the Turks must have feared that a major assault was imminent and they opened up with … the most severe bombardment we have yet experienced & our trenches were practically destroyed in most places. The casualties from this Turkish bombardment were 7 officers and 37 other ranks. L/Cpl McDougall must have been one of those killed. Not surprisingly, such ‘demonstrations’ were not very popular with the Australian soldiers.

References

Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative

War Diary of 7 Battalion

National Archives file for MCDOUGALL Alfred Kitson

First World War Embarkation Rolls: Alfred Kitson McDougall

Roll of Honour: Alfred Kitson McDougall

40. Edward RADBURN 477

When he enlisted, Edward Radburn gave his place of birth as Lucknow (Bairnsdale). However when the father completed the details for the (National) Roll of Honour form, he gave the place of birth as Boolarra. The father also recorded Boolarra as the place with which his son was ‘chiefly connected’. He gave his son’s primary school as Outtrim, near Leongatha. However, the father’s address on the enlistment papers, and also on the embarkation, roll was recorded as Gunyah. Further, when Edward Radburn left for service with the AIF, the brief piece in the Gippsland Standard and AlbertonShire Representative (16 October 1914)  described how he was farewelled from Gunyah. Basically, it appears Edward Radburn and his family were living on the border of the Shire of Alberton and this probably explains why his name is not recorded on either the Shire Honor Roll or the Shire War Memorial. At the same time, the family was certainly known in the district. For example, the Gippsland Standard and AlbertonShire Representative reported on 6 December that James Radburn – the father – who had been a sergeant of police for many years had been sworn in as a Justice of the Peace and that … he is sure to prove a very worthy justice. His appointment will be a great convenience to the residents of Gunyah. Similalrly, there is a Radburn Road in the district. And Edward’s sister, Lucy, and father both appeared at several patriotic concerts held in the Wonyip (Ryton) Hall – he acted as the MC and she performed as a singer.

Edward Radburn enlisted in Melbourne on 1 October 1914. On enlistment, Edward gave his age as 19yo but according to the father, when he completed the Roll of Honour form, his son was only 18 years and 10 months when he died from wounds some 9 months later, on 10 July 1915. There is no sign in his service record of the written permission required of the parents whose son was underage.

Edward was single and his occupation was recorded as farm hand. Presumably he was working with his father. He gave his religion as Church of England.

In correspondence in the service file, the father – James Radburn – referred to himself as an ‘old soldier’ but there is no record of Boer War service under that name. At the same time, as already noted, it appears that the father had seen service in at least the police force. Correspondence in his son’s AIF service file reveals that the father was proud of his son’s enlistment.

Private Radburn was in the 9 Light Horse Regiment. The official record states that he died from wounds on 10 July 1915. The wound was a gunshot wound to the thorax. When he was admitted to the hospital in Alexandria – 17 General Hospital – on 8 July 1915, he was described as ‘dangerously ill’ and he died within 2 days.

The father was informed by telegram of his son’s death on 15 July, less than one week later, which, by the standards of the time, was very prompt. Obviously, the fact that he died in a major hospital in Alexandria meant that the family could be advised promptly. Similarly, the funeral was attended to expeditiously – it happened on the same day that Private Radburn died – and the details were passed back to the family in Gippsland: Rev. S A Marsh officiated and the burial was at Chatby Military Cemetery, Alexandria.  A small number of personal effects – Testament, cigarette case and watch(damaged) –  reached the family in April 1916.

Even though the reporting of this particular death ran far smoother than most of the others we have looked at to this point, there were still discrepancies. All the AIF forms give the date of death as 10 July 1915. Yet, the formal death certificate issued by the Municipality of Alexandria has the time and date of death as 9.40pm on 9 July 1915. More worrying for the family was that the date of death was originally given as 29 June; and this error was not corrected until the end of April 1916. In the intervening 9 months, the father received advice from his son’s friends in 9 Light Horse Regiment on the circumstances of his death. They told him that he had been seriously wounded on 29 June, transferred off Gallipoli and taken to hospital in Alexandria where he died round 10 July, just after having been admitted. It took several letters from the father before the AIF admitted their initial advice was wrong and the record was corrected.

The war diary for 9 Light Horse Regiment does not record any action for 29 June. It does record 2 killed and 4 wounded on 28 June – the day before – when, at Walker’s Ridge, the Australians fired at the Turkish trenches in a sustained manner for 1 hour. It was another feint intended to … assist landing of troops at Cape Helles. The Turks replied with heavy shelling and this was when the casualties were sustained. Private Radburn could have been one of the 4 wounded. The next entry in the war diary is for 30 June. Very early that morning, in the period from just after midnight up to 5.30 am, the Turkish forces mounted a major attack on the 9 Light Horse Regiment’s trenches at Walker’s Ridge. The fighting was intense and after it finished, the Australians counted 54 dead Turkish soldiers immediately in front of their trenches. There was 1 Australian killed and 8 were wounded. Presumably, Private Radburn was one of the 8 wounded. The fact that the action occurred so early in the morning might explain why the 29 June was given as the date he was wounded. He was taken off the Gallipoli Peninsula and transferred by ship to Alexandria, a process that took at least 1 week.

When he died in hospital in Alexandria, Edward Radburn was still only 18yo and he had been in the AIF for not much more than 9 months.

References

Gippsland Standard and Alberton Shire Representative

War Diary of 9 Light Horse Regiment, June 1915
National Archives file for RADBURN Edward
First World War Embarkation Rolls: Edward Radburn
Roll of Honour: Edward Radburn